Detecting and avoiding obstacles has been a vital role that has been played by the bots that are created using Arduino. The table bot is a well known bot in the realm of small Arduino operated bot that are also easy to construct. It senses if there exists a base ahead of the path on which the bot currently is. The bot will turn and change its course whenever it reaches the edge of the table it is running on. It does that using the infrared sensor also commonly known as the IR sensors.
IR sensor is guided by the Infrared technology which addresses a wide variety of wireless applications. The main areas are sensing and remote controls. In the electromagnetic spectrum, the infrared portion is divided into three regions: near infrared region, mid infrared region and far infrared region. The basic concept of an Infrared Sensor which is used as Obstacle detector is to transmit an infrared signal, this infrared signal bounces from the surface of an object and the signal is received at the infrared receiver.Infrared Transmitter is a light emitting diode (LED) which emits infrared radiations. Hence, they are called IR LED’s. Even though an IR LED looks like a normal LED, the radiation emitted by it is invisible to the human eye.
The electronics are very simple. You only need an Arduino Uno Atmega , and a simple setup for the IR sensor that you are using. The robot can be configured in many different ways, the parts that we used are a chaster wheel, a simple chassis, 2 wheels, some jumper wires, an L293D, bread board, a motor driver and 4 or more IR sensors. Make sure your sensor is held by the its wires several centimetres away from the chassis of the robot. When an object is placed in front of the bot, the value from the analog pin starts getting smaller. These values are sent from the analog pin to the Arduino which in return uses it to plan its motion forward accordingly.